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How we used ancient coins to show a ‘fake’ Roman emperor was real

A hand holds a small gold coin in its palm featuring the head of a roman ruler.

All that was beforehand recognized concerning the supposed Roman emperor Sponsian was gleaned from a handful of gold cash which have been thought to be forgeries for over 150 years.

Accordingly, Sponsian has been dismissed as somebody who by no means existed. However new analysis by my crew suggests the cash are genuine merchandise of antiquity. This raises the questions: who was Sponsian, and the place and when did he rule?

You are reading: How we used ancient coins to show a ‘fake’ Roman emperor was real

A 3rd century disaster

Though my fundamental self-discipline is Earth sciences, I’ve all the time been fascinated by historic historical past. In the course of the COVID lockdowns, I made a decision to jot down a brand new guide on Rome’s third century disaster. It was a time of viral pandemic, financial downturn, inflation and warfare – and so appeared grimly applicable.

Rome celebrated its millennium in AD248, however within the wake of the pandemic, the empire suffered escalating disasters, and by AD260 it had disintegrated into warring chunks. In opposition to the percentages, a collection of profitable rulers managed to sew it collectively, ushering in a interval often called late antiquity.

Gold coin with profile of man's head wearing a crown.

The much-doubted Sponsian coin.
The Hunterian, College of Glasgow., Writer supplied

Whereas researching, I got here throughout the story of the supposedly “pretend emperor” Sponsian. Solely grainy black and white photos of his controversial cash have been obtainable, so I emailed Jesper Ericsson, curator of numismatics (coin research) on the Hunterian museum in Glasgow, requesting a color {photograph}.

Zooming in, we have been stunned to see that the floor of the coin appeared deeply worn, and there have been patches of what regarded like soil within the crevices among the many lettering. We set about assembling a crew of researchers to find out if the cash actually have been pretend.

A crock of gold

In March 1713, Carl Gustav Heraeus, inspector of antiquities and medals in Vienna, obtained a go to from Johann von Palm, senior finance minister to the Habsburg courtroom.

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Palm had taken possession of some cash that had allegedly been unearthed in Transylvania. Heraeus chosen eight items for the imperial assortment and – thankfully for posterity – scribbled a observe recording these transient particulars.

He then appears to have authorised the remaining to be offered on the thriving antiquities market of the day. About 15 of those have since appeared in revealed works and public sale catalogues.

Four gold coins of different sizes showing different profiles of Roman leaders.

High, L-R: Sponsian, Gordian III. Backside, each Philip I/II.
The Hunterian, College of Glasgow

Heraeus and different early specialists recognised instantly that the cash weren’t official merchandise from Rome. They’ve a distinctly home made look, with a peculiar combination of motifs and bungled lettering. As a result of some function recognized emperors Gordian III (reigned AD238-244) and Philip I (reigned AD244-249), Sponsian got here to be thought to be a insurgent or “usurper” who made a bid for supreme energy within the civil warfare that marked the tip of Philip’s rule.

Within the nineteenth century the nice numismatist Henry Cohen dismissed the cash as poorly made fashionable fakes, and that’s how they’ve been regarded till now.

Filth and scratches

4 of the cash made their approach into a big assortment bequeathed to the College of Glasgow. One options Gordian III, two Philip and one Sponsian.

We subjected them to a battery of imaging and spectroscopic assessments alongside two undoubtedly real gold aurei of Gordian III and Philip.

We discovered that the sample of damage, scratches and cratering was basically equivalent on all of the cash. That isn’t proof of authenticity, nonetheless, as a result of recognized historic fakers typically used crafty means to simulate put on.

The Sponsian gold coin under the microscope.

The Sponsian gold coin below the microscope.
The Hunterian, College of Glasgow

Extra convincing was the grime proof. It grew to become clear that it was cemented in place with silica (an lively element of soil that tends to get dissolved and re-precipitated, serving to bind soils collectively), simply as happens throughout extended burial.

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We additionally discovered a skinny layer of gypsum on the floor of the earthen deposits, indicating oxidation on publicity to air. We concluded that the cash had been buried for an extended interval earlier than being dug up, and therefore are genuine merchandise of antiquity.

The historic Sponsian

Sponsian’s cash give him the title “imperator” (supreme navy commander), and he wears a radiate crown, a part of imperial regalia. It’s affordable, subsequently, to explain him as a Roman emperor, though he definitely by no means dominated in Rome. The empire threw up an extended record of native rebels with imperial pretensions, particularly throughout the third century disaster.

The Sponsian cash are very worn, which signifies that they circulated for a while. From this we deduce that they have been a part of an lively financial financial system. Regular commerce unfold cash throughout the empire, however this appears to not have occurred with Sponsian cash. They’re extraordinarily uncommon and no examples have been present in fashionable occasions. How can we resolve these puzzles?

Roman Dacia

The cash have been present in Transylvania. This mountainous space was as soon as a part of the Roman province of Dacia the place gold and silver have been mined. It was closely militarised, with two legions defending the mining operation and civil inhabitants.

Historic sources say Roman Dacia was misplaced throughout the reign of Emperor Gallienus (AD260-268), but in addition that it was deserted by Emperor Aurelian (AD270-275). Our speculation is {that a} secessionist regime held energy in Dacia throughout the intervening interval.

Two men bend over a computer screen to look at a zoomed-in image of the coin.
L-R: The creator Professor Paul N Pearson, UCL (College Faculty London) and Jesper Ericsson, The Hunterian, College of Glasgow, wanting on the Sponsian coin below a microscope.
The Hunterian, College of Glasgow, Writer supplied

At the moment the empire was in civil warfare and the borderlands alongside the Danube have been devastated by invaders. The plain factor for the Dacian legions to do was to look to their very own sources. That they had entry to gold from the mines which they may flip to coin.

First, maybe, they made cash that includes earlier emperors, after which depicting their very own commander Sponsian. Then, when Aurelian lastly restored order alongside the Danube, all this irregular cash would have been recalled for melting down. That would clarify why the cash are so worn, and but so uncommon and localised.

We hope that sometime extra details about Sponsian will emerge to resolve these puzzles. Ought to a coin flip up in a safe archaeological context, we might examine it in additional element, and use fingerprinting to reply our theories on the cash native manufacturing.

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